Wednesday, March 20, 2013

Module #8

1. Find one useful, relevant and interesting website that would be helpful for sometime who wanted to learn more about the structure and composition of the Earth. Include the url of the site, and provide a 50-100 word critique of this website (i.e. annotated bibliography). Be sure to highlight the pros and cons of this site, and comment on it's validity (i.e. is it a unviersity site, government, or some guy in his basement?). 

2. Open and view at least three other sites posted by others in the class.


  1. I have found some great website for people who want maybe know more and some interesting facts about the earth and the structure of the earth. Those website have some fun videos and some of the great education videos which can tell you the basics about earth and its structure.

    There’s some website below which will show you interesting and some cool facts about the earth.

    1- http://www.livescience.com/19102-amazing-facts-earth.html
    2- http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Earths_layers/Earths_layers1.html
    3- http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/earth.html

  2. The best educational website that teaches the reader about the structure and composition of Earth is http://scign.jpl.nasa.gov/learn/plate1.htm.
    This website begins with a great diagram of the Earth and a button function, where you can open it and see the layers inside. Then the page talks of how Geophysical studies have shown that the Earth has many distinctive layers, and states how large they are. The website goes into some depth of the four layers and what they are made up of. In conclusion, this website, titled Structures of The Earth, is a great educational page, written by a credible NASA researcher, with detailed graphics and accurate information.

  3. http://australianmuseum.net.au/Structure-and-composition-of-the-Earth

    This website has a lot of valuable information and some specific details such the depth of the layers and temperatures. This website is not terribly visually pleasing as it has no visual aid, it is just all text. All in all though, this website has a lot of useful information and could easily further someone's knowledge of the earth and it's structure.
    I believe this to be a reputable source because it was posted by the Australian Museum.

  4. http://www.geography4kids.com/files/earth_intro.html

    This website contains a great deal of relevant and accurate information regarding the structure and composition of our planet. Various concepts are explored with both visual aid and text that creates a concise and more understandable version of scientific data and knowledge without being condescending. This site was designed and is maintained by the fully qualified Andrew Rader, who ensures that his team of experts has created a site that is fully correct and functions smoothly. Therefore, this reputable website is an effective learning tool and a beneficial source.

  5. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/structure.html

    This website contains useful information about the earth's composition and structure. The webpage contains a interactive diagram that makes the website visual appealing and fun. The information is succinct and can be used by all ages. The website is not run by the government or a university but the website looks professional and the information is cited. This website only provides a small amount of information and if one really wants to learn a lot about the earth's composition and structure they'd be better off finding a different website.

  6. http://scign.jpl.nasa.gov/learn/plate1.html

    This website right off the bat gives you an illustration of the earth's four layers as well as thorough information about each layer. On the website there is a legend on the bottom of the page that gives you access to learn about plate tectonics, forces of the earth, and many other things that involve the structure of the earth. This website however is not extremely visual. It does give a good diagram of the earth's layers, but other than that the website is just paragraph after paragraph of straight material. Overall, it is a solid website and could be used as a good studying source.

  7. http://geology.com/nsta/earth-internal-structure.shtml

    This website, while being relatively dense in terms of knowledge, manages to not be overwhelming. It contains various interconnected pages which deal with the basics of physical geography and the Earth’s various layers. While providing solid information in order to help the reader get started on basic concepts, simple diagrams are displayed to the side which are extremely easy to comprehend. While not being run by any individual organization, the site is run and written by many undeniably qualified individuals, such as the main publisher himself, Mr. Hobart King, who holds a PhD in geology and who, after many years of teaching at Mansfield University, now publishes and works on geology.com.

  8. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/natural_hazards/tectonic_plates_rev1.shtml

    This website provides key information about the structure of the Earth, however this information is only basic and doesn’t provide a very in-depth explanation of the Earth's structure. The site provides many visual aids integrated among the text to create an easier way for users to process the information. As well, as you go further into the section you can find diagrams that are interactive and give you the option to play a video-like diagram. This site is published by BBC, which is a well-known company in the UK, who has been providing educational sources for a number of years.

  9. http://www.space.com/54-earth-history-composition-and-atmosphere.html

    This article on SPACE.com offers a wide array of information about the Earth, and several paragraphs on the structure and chemical composition of the planet. The website sources its information, providing links embedded into the article. There are illustrations and diagrams about the Earth's structure, which is an effective way of learning for many people. SPACE.com has proven to be a credible site and has had articles featured on such websites as yahoo.com.

  10. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/natural_hazards/tectonic_plates_rev1.shtml

    This BBC website has much to offer. This basic site gives definitions, diagrams and external links to read more about the content given. The website is bright and colourful that way it attracts the reader. Also, this website doesn't have an overwhelming amount of words therefore it doesn't turn you off from reading it. However, some terminology is difficult to understand at first. I recommend this website to anyone who would like to enhance their knowledge about the structures of the Earth. Rating: 9/10

  11. http://australianmuseum.net.au/Structure-and-composition-of-the-Earth

    This website is very descriptive and useful. It contains a lot of useful information, and it breaks it all into categories, which makes it organized and easy to read. It does, however, lack visual aids, something that the sites that the other students have chosen have. All in all, the website is good for information, but it's not as visually appealing as some other sites.

  12. http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Earths_layers/Earths_layers1.html

    This website has various slides which give a minor insight about the Earth's composition. It is quite useful for a quick and easy read which gives many, albeit hideous, diagrams. There are only 8 or so actual slides with any information on them, and the information which is on them is incredibly brief. But I guess that is my kind of presentation, short and to the point.

  13. Module # 10

    At a convergent plate boundary, two plates collide. An a example of this is the ongoing collision between the Eurasian plate and the Indian plate. This collision has created the Himalayas. The Indian plate is moving north and colliding with the Eurasian plate. The Indian plate is colliding with the Eurasian plate at a rate of 2cm per year.

    Four major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the last 100 years. One of these major quakes was the Uttarkashi Earthquake that took place on October 14th 1991. It was caused by a slippage in the plate boundary. The official death count was 768 and 90 000 homes were damaged. 58 aftershocks were recorded after the quake and these lasted until November 28th 1991. It was the most deadly quake to hit the region since 1950.




  14. A Transform Plate Boundary is one which, unlike the convergent or divergent boundaries, does not cause much visible damage to the lithosphere due to the fact that it only moves horizontally as opposed to vertically.

    The Alpine Fault is an example of a Transform Boundary (though it is also slightly a convergent boundary) between the Pacific plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. Located in New Zealand, it is 800 km long and runs along the western edge of the Southern Alps. The slip rate of the fault (the rate in which one plate moves in relation to the other) is 30 mm annually, with the Pacific Plate rubbing against the Indo-Australian plate towards the South-West.

    There have been no earthquakes at the Alpine Fault in recent history, the latest earthquake being in 1717. Many estimate that that earthquake had had a magnitude between 7.9 and 8.0, though because it was so long ago, unfortunately there are no statistics about casualties or any interesting facts to share beyond that. However, in terms of the next earthquake which will strike this fault, there is much information to be found. It is believed that, when considering the average time between the earlier earthquakes which have occurred at the Alpine, that the next will be in approximately 30 to 40 years. Many have claimed that the next earthquake will likely be a big one, with the tension increasing with every year it does not rupture. It is anticipated that there will be a horizontal offset of 8 m, as well as a vertical offset of 1.5 m (due to the fact that the Alpine, despite being mostly a Transform Boundary, has slight Convergent properties).


  15. A transform boundary involves two plates scraping past each other laterally, which can cause earthquakes.

    One example of a transform boundary is the North Anatolian fault in Turkey, between the Eurasian and Anatolian plate. The boundary is around 20km south of Instanbul/

    Since a major earthquake in 1939, there have been seven other major earthquakes, all measuring around 7.0 on the Richter scale.
    Each earthquake moves west from the previous one. About 54 000 people have been killed by these earthquakes. The most recent quake was in 1999, in Düzce.


  16. I have chosen the Himalayas, the lighter crust of the Indian plate being scrapped off the base of the plate and being pushed into the crust of the Asian plate. As the lighter crustal area is pushed into the crust of the Asian plate the mountain are being pushed up. The mountains, including Everest, are still rising. The base rocks of the Indian plate are being pushed under the Asian plate causing a large are of the Asian plate to elevate also resulting.

    References: http://whatonearth.olehnielsen.dk/plates/indian.asp