Wednesday, May 15, 2013

Module #19

1. Choose one of the following cities from the list below (each student must choose a different city), and explain what factors (LOWERN) affect their climate the most. For example, Guelph's climate is mostly influenced by latitude, proximity to the Great Lakes and Winds and Air masses. Guelph's climate is not affected by elevation, relief or ocean currents in any way. Provide explanation for each factor given using specific terms and refer to specific bodies of water and mountain chains if applicable.

London, England                             Sydney, Australia

Paris, France                                     Sao Paulo, Brazil

Vancouver, BC                                 Madrid, Spain

Los Angeles, CA                              Moscow, Russia

New York, NY                                 Nairobi, Kenya

Tokyo, Japan                                     San Jose, Costa Rica

Hong Kong, China                            Berlin, Germany

Cairo, Egypt                                       Halifax, Nova Scotia

Dallas, Texas                                      Alice Springs, Australia

Rome, Italy                                         Miami, Florida


  1. Sydney, Australia. Air masses affect Sydney climate big time like the tropical maritime Tasman air mass. This comes out of the north Tasman sea. It's worm moist air mass that is unstable though. Often this air mass. Produces clouds and precipitation along eastern coast of Australia. The air mass affects Sydney most of the year of the modified polar maritime. It's cold and moist. This one is also unstable but on the surface it's stable above. This comes up from the latitude of about 55 degrees south. It affects Sydney in the winter time. Also this air mass produces cloudy weather with light up perception. In lands, in Sydney's western suburbs, the climate is drier and summers are much hotter with temperature around 2-5 degrees Celsius above Sydney's and winter lows around 2 degrees cooler than the coastal suburbs.

    References: Wikipedia

  2. Vancouver British Columbia is mostly affected by relief, nearness to water and ocean currents. Vancouver is directly on the Eastern part of the Pacific Ocean and is greatly affected due to their nearness and ocean currents in two main ways. The two ways are firstly, the increased precipitation due to air masses and ocean currents that come from over the Ocean and picked up a lot of water which has to be emptied sometime over land. Secondly having a body of water next to you affects the temperature because water takes longer to cool down or warm up which is the moderation effect. Relief plays a large part in Vancouver's weather because they are surrounded by many mountains such as the North Shore mountain chain, which divert continental air masses and produce less sun during sunset or sunrise when the sun is behind the mountains.

  3. Japan has a varying climate because it has a large range of latitudes. The city of Tokyo has a climate that is affected by proximity to water, since it's a coastal city, meaning it gets a lot of precipitation, and in turn there's a lot of snow in Japan in winter, resulting in very mild winters. Tokyo's climate is also affected by ocean currents, as Tokyo falls on the Kuroshio Current, which warms the temperature of Tokyo.

  4. The city of Halifax is located in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia is one of Canada`s maritime provinces and these means that it`s climate is greatly effect by the ocean. The ocean moderates it`s climate and therefore it has warmer winters and cooler summers than continental climates. Halifax is located at (44.6479° N, 63.5744° W). It`s latitude has some effect on its climate and makes the climate cooler than it would be if it was more southern. Ocean currents also effect Halifax`s climate as it is so close to the Atlantic Ocean. Two currents that effect it are Gulf Stream and Labrador current. This area is also affected by air masses.


  5. Miama, Florida is a city in the United States that has a tropical monsoon climate, which is mostly determined by its at sea-level elevaton, coastal location, latitude just above the Tropic of Cancer and its proximity to the Gulf Stream. As it has a latitude just north of the Tropic of Cancer (25°47′16″N 80°13′27″W), the average yearly temperature remains fairly high and precipitation is heavy. Miami is near to the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlanitc Ocean, causing high precipitation and a large amount of thunderstorms and hurricanes. This nearness to water also means that temperatures remain consistent, but are consistently high due to the Gulf Stream's warming affect on this eastern coastal area. Because Miami is at sea level, average yearly temperature is high. Miami is not affected much by mountain ranges.

  6. Hong Kong, China is subtropical, humid and hot, but just a step away from being tropical monsoon climate. Hong Kong’s proximity to the ocean (as it is surrounded by it) is a major factor which influences the city’s climate. The NEARNESS TO WATER aspect makes for higher levels of precipitation (with an average of 175mm in June), and, as such, summer thunderstorms and typhoons are relatively common. LATITUDE, as well, has a major effect on the climate. The latitude of Hong Kong is 22.3000° N, relatively close to the equator. Because of this, the climate is much hotter than other locations further north or much further south. Another major factor is WIND AND WATER CURRENTS. The influence from the winter monsoons from the north east have a major effect on the winter temperature, making the winters in Hong Kong much colder than areas further inland. Winters in Hong Kong are typically roughly 14°C, extremely cold in comparison to the 28°C - 30°C summers.

  7. The city of London in England has a temperate oceanic climate. Their climate is affected by ocean currents throughout the year, and in particular the Gulf Stream Current. This current helps to keep the winters milder and summers cooler. The affect that this ocean current has, allows naturally occurring palm trees to grow in some southern parts of England. The Latitude also has an affect on the climate in London. Located between 50° N and 60° N, distinct seasons occur from the amount of solar radiation that the area receives in the particular time of year. Wind and air masses often affect the climate in London. Due to the latitude of the city they mostly receive predominantly westerly winds, cooling the temperature of an area. Finally, the climate of London is somewhat influenced by the bodies of water that surround it even though it is not located directly on the coast. They keep the city warmer in winters and cooler in the summers. This allows for London not to become nearly as humid as we experience in Canada in the summer.

  8. Berlin, Germany has a climate that is noticeably affected by bodies of water. The many lakes that make up the Havel river lying on the outskirts of the city cause moderate temperatures, as low as 0 degrees Celsius in the winter and 25 degrees Celsius in the summer. Because of the buildings that can store some heat, the interior of the city can be up to 4 degrees cooler than the outlying regions. At an elevation of only 34 meters above sea lever, Germany is a low lying area, and is therefore kept warmer and less exposed to winds. Berlin lies at approximately 52.5 degrees N and is closer to the North pole than some parts of Canada. The winters are kept warmer because of its elevation and water bodies.

  9. Rome Italy, unlike Guelph, Ontario whom has the same latitude as one another, enjoys a warm mild temperature year round. This is evidence that latitude is a minor contributor to Rome's overall temperature. The reason why Rome has a warm and comfortable temperature is because of the Mediterranean Sea, unlike Guelph Rome isn't surrounded entirely by land. The Mediterranean provides warm air currents that are swept off the ocean blessing warm with a general climate that rarely drops below 5 degrees Celsius, and can reach temperatures during the summer months of about 25 and occasionally 30 degrees Celsius. So in conclusion the main reason behind Rome's comfortable climate is the majestic Mediterranean Sea.

    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome#Climate

  10. Alice Springs, Australia is located near mountains, and its climate is effected by relief. It receives very little precipitation throughout the year, as the mountains block the rain, and it is located in a rain shadow. It is also affected by warm air masses which keep the temperature warmer through most of the year, in the summer the average maximum temperature is in the high 30s. The climate in Alice Springs is not effected very much by ocean currents, as it is located so far in land, and surrounded by mountains.


  11. Moscow, Russia has many contributing factors to its climate including: latitude, elevation, and air masses.
    Moscow Region is located in the basin of the Volga, Oka, Klyazma, and Moscow rivers, therefore there are constant breezes, but these bodies of water are not great enough to effect the precipitation rates. Moscow is very high up north at approximately 56 degrees N. This means that the climates will generally be cooler than that of Guelph. Also, the elevation is approximately 130 meters above sea level, therefore it is not very much colder due to the environmental lapse rate, but it will be cooler than that of ocean level. Moscow, though fairly central, is effected by continental polar air masses coming from the arctic. The winters are fairly cold with temperatures measuring approximately -10 degrees in january, and summers are relatively hot with an approximate temperature of 23 degrees in july.


  12. The general climate of New York City is humid continental. They have fairly cold winters and warm summers. On average, western New York is cloudier than southeast New York, much of it generated from the Great Lakes. Greenhouse gas emission is low on a per capita basis when compared to most other states due to the extensive use of mass transit. The primary factors that affect New York are nearness to water, and latitude. Because of how close New York City is to the Great Lakes, this would greatly affect New York's climate. Also, the latitude greatly affects New York. The major portion of the state lies generally between latitudes 42° and 45°N and between longitudes 73° 30' and 79° 45'W. However, in the extreme southeast, a triangular portion extends southward to about latitude 40° 30'N, while Long Island lies eastward to about longitude 72°W.

    1. http://nysc.eas.cornell.edu/climate_of_ny.html


  13. Madrid, Spain has a continental Mediterranean climate. Characterized by warm,dry summers to cold, wet winters.Latitude affects Madrid's climate by giving it hot dry temperatures averaging around 30 degrees Celsius in the summer months.Cold winters come from Madrid's high elevation of about 2200 feet above sea level.Also because of its close proximity to the mountains this often causes some wide degrees of variation in the winter and summer temperatures that are found in Madrid. Certainly during the summer the heat at noon can often be very intense and the evenings are often cool but not cold.Since Spain in apart of a large peninsula with Portugal, this region is surrounded by water. The Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and the bay of Biscay combined surround this peninsula.As for ocean currents and wind, Madrid isn't majorly affected in any way.